Measures – (Height) 11”Ca. 19th century Khmer bronze Buddha Shakyamuni. The Buddha is seated, in virasana, cross-legged symbol of Serenity, with both hands in the Bhumisparsa or 'Calling Earth to Witness' mudrÄ. With fingers slightly touching the ground this position represents the subduing of Mara (a demon) who bombarded Buddha with demons, monsters, violent storms and the three seductive daughters. Remaining steadfast the Buddha testified to his meritorious past by pointing to the earth and calling the Earth Goddess, Thorani. Rising from the ground the Earth Goddess wrings the water from her long black hair. By this action she raises a torrential flood that drowns Mara and his army of demons. This gesture reflects this story symbolizing enlightenment, as well as steadfastness and Buddhaâ€™s achievement of perfection or nirvana. The Buddha has a peaceful countenance with downcast introspective eyes and a firm brow. He has a large lotus flower shaped ushnisha protuberance on top of his head that symbolizing his high level of spiritual development. His earlobes are stretched long from a youth spent as a prince wearing heavy gold earrings. The casting is beautiful as you can see in the fine details of the fingers and toes. The base of the Buddha displays gold Khmer script, taken from the Jataka. Each detail is rendered perfectly. The distinctive patina of the piece is also particularly delightful.