Roman bronze coin Constantius II (337-361 AD), Ihnasayah hoard #10390;Weight: 1.46 g;Diameter: 15 mm;Minted in Alexandria, Egypt before 346 AD.905.5.855.1.1Sold on behalf of the Royal Ontario Museum. Ex 1903/5 Ihnasyah Hoard. Each individual coin comes in an archival flip and has its own ticket containing museum inventory number and pedigree information.Prior to the opening of the Royal Ontario Museum in 1912, the first Director of Archaeology, Dr. C.T. Currelly, purchased in Egypt a large hoard, or portion of a hoard, of Constantinian bronze coins, which were to form the nucleus of the Museum's collections. Containing coins datable from the period immediately following the Battle of Chrysopolis in AD 324 all the way to AD 346, the hoard, discovered, in 1903 or shortly before its sale, was purchased in 1905 at Ihnasyah in the Fayyum. Examined by J.G. Milne, the hoard, along with Milne's analysis, was published in 1914 in the Journal International d'Archeologie Numismatique. Totaling more than 6000 coins, the hoard included some coins from other periods, which made their way into the hoard at the time of the sale, since their patination is different from the rest of the hoard. In 1965, Frederick H. Armstrong published a revisiting of the hoard (Phoenix 19 ), revising and amending the earlier work of Milne, and noting varieties missed in the earlier study prior to the publication of Late Roman Bronze Coinage.Constantius II (Latin: Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death.In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire.His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results.In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar.However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died late in 361, though not before naming Julian as his successor.