Rare 1860 Chinese 1 Cash brass coin; Tai Ping Tien Kuo â€œTAIPING HEAVENLY KINGDOMâ€ on the obverse, and Sheng Bao â€œSACRED CURRENCYâ€ on the reverse.; FD-2669, Hartill-23.10; D: 36.1 mm, T: 2 mm. The Taiping Rebellion was a massive civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, against the ruling Manchu Qing dynasty. It was a millenarian movement led by Hong Xiuquan, who announced that he had received visions, in which he learned that he was the younger brother of Jesus. At least 20 million people died, mainly civilians, in one of the deadliest military conflicts in history. Hong established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom with its capital at Nanjing. The Kingdom's army controlled large parts of southern China, at its height ruling about 30 million people. The rebel agenda included social reforms such as shared "property in common", equality for women, and the replacement of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Chinese folk religion with their form of Christianity. Because of their refusal to wear the queue (pony tail), Taiping combatants were nicknamed "Longhairs" (simplified Chinese: ??; traditional Chinese: ??; pinyin: ChÃ¡ngmÃ¡o) by the Qing government, which besieged the Taiping armies throughout the rebellion. The Qing government eventually crushed the rebellion with the aid of French and British forces. In the 20th century, Sun Yat-sen, founder of the Chinese Nationalist Party, looked on the rebellion as an inspiration, and Chinese leader Mao Zedong glorified the Taiping rebels as early heroic revolutionaries against a corrupt feudal system.