Large Russian plate by Kuznetsov porcelain factory.(From Forum Art Investment RU):"n Russia in the late XIX - early XX centuries plants "Society production of porcelain and pottery products, MS Kuznetsov "in Riga, Dulevo, Novgorod, Verbilki and others were the main producers of relatively inexpensive china for general consumers.Matthew Sidorovich Kuznetsov - a talented, enterprising industrialist - supplied china all over Russia. He did not just continued the work of his father and grandfather, and led him to a new level - significantly increase the power plants, which he acquired by inheritance, bought new, expanded the range of products, markets, successfully competing with European and Oriental porcelain manufacturers.Founded the "family business" grandfather Matthew Sidorovich - James V. Kuznetsov - the village blacksmith. The peasants came to him to shoe a horse, buy axle to the cart, scythe, ax, rake ... Carriageways sometimes stayed the night - also "source of revenue."Why not just talking gossips when Jacob Kuznetsov started to put on the frame Dorca River, almost at the edge of the village of Gzhel: robbed, they say, and killed a guest - a rich merchant ... Soon, the house began to drive up the carts with clay, quartz, feldspar: in 1810 it was the small cottage porcelain plant. Two years later, he led the son of James - Terence. Deciding to expand his father's production, he built a new plant - in Dulevo Vladimir province. In 1832 production with sorting shop, warehouse, painting workshop was put into effect. At this enterprising owner does not stop there: nearby, in the village of Korotkov, was well-established porcelain production AG Safonov. His painters knew a special recipe for the bright colors and ceramic porcelain mass, elaborately painted ware Covered way - blue, pink, yellow, crimson cobalt, velvety, creamy. For finishing expensive cookware used gold, engraved agate. In a bizarre ornament "read" every detail. Terence Kuznetsov at any price I decided to buy the plant and made it. First, in 1851, rented, and later became its rightful owner.Son Terence - Sidor, taking the reins from his father, closed production Korotkov and talented artists moved its plant in Dulevo. Prior to that, even in 1843, he founded the porcelain-faience factory in Riga, where the dining room and let the tea-things, and telegraph and telephone insulators polufayansovye product. Skilled craftsmen have come here from Gzhel - on the outskirts of Riga, near the Western Dvina, there was a Russian village. Porcelain production has grown, bringing considerable income.His son Matthew Sidor Terent'evich early childhood trying to instill a business flair, brought it strength of character, patience, perseverance. Matthew received a home education, and in 1861 - 15 years old - at the behest of his father went to Riga. Managing introduced him not only with all the intricacies of the porcelain, but taught and on how to be the master of production. In Riga, Matthew graduated from Commercial College, by order of the government was involved in the development of rail transport tariffs and customs duties.In 1864, it came time to head "Kuznetsovsk business." At age 18, Matthew is the sole owner of all the plants of the family of the Kuznetsov. However, officially it was under the tutelage of their husbands sisters to age - 21 years, that has not stopped him in the 19th to get own family. Year by year it grew: heirs Matthew Kuznetsova was eight - seven sons and a daughter.Matthew Kuznetsov set a goal - to create a monopoly of private porcelain factories in Russia - and all life came to her. In the Tver region, in the village Kuznetsova (now Konakovo), there is a factory owned by AJ Auerbach - one of the best in the country. It was founded by a pharmacist from Bohemia Friedrich Brynner, and in 1810 sold the Auerbach - Livonia pharmacist who placed the plant Kuznetsova. It created the unique beauty of things - especially cutlery, decorated with garlands of flowers and leaves. The scale of the enterprise can be judged from the fact that over the service for the imperial traveling palace in Tver employed 7000 people! Product plants have three gold medals at various exhibitions, twice the plant gets the right to represent them on the State coat of arms, which was considered the highest honor. In 1870, Matthew Kuznetsov buys plant AJ Auerbach holds its reconstruction, rebuilding, establishes three steam boilers, steam engines, nearly doubling the number of workers. Having a manufacturing base and masters of the highest class, the factory produced majolica, porcelain, earthenware, polufayans highest quality, consistently receiving awards at exhibitions and commissions from private individuals.By the second half of the XIX century, MS Kuznetsov became the largest supplier of porcelain, earthenware, majolica and other kinds of products on the world market had 18 companies in the Russian Empire, including 8 factories, plants in Dulevo, Kuznetsova, Budach Kharkov province, village Elavlyanke Chernigov province, in the village of Sand Kaluga Province.In 1889 was founded "Association of production of porcelain and pottery products, MS Kuznetsov "with the board in Moscow. But his boss was not going to "rest on our laurels": no rest famous factory Gardner - the best porcelain factory in Russia. At the end of XIX century, it suddenly began to experience financial difficulties. There were rumors that the company broke "helped" Kuznetsov. Other explanation for the fact that the plant world-famous, not knowing crisis, suddenly found himself in such a deplorable situation, many are found. Anyway, in April 1892, MS Kuznetsov made a bargain with the last owner of the plant, Yelizaveta Gardner, 238 thousand and 300 acres of land. Separately for 5000 were bought all the factory models, forms, drawings, samples. Special agreement confirms the right of the new owner to put on products, signs, accounts emblem and brand name of the plant "Gardner", his awards and medals. From now on, thank Gardner belonged Kuznetsov, who became still-monopoly private porcelain!"Porcelain mogul" Kuznetsov tried to compete with the Imperial Porcelain Factory. From St. Petersburg to Dulevo attracted many artists-painters, but combine "free" painted folk art and the strict range of classics failed. Each style was good in its own way and developed independently.Each year, plants of the "Society of MS Kuznetsov "produced products to more than 7000 rubles - two-thirds of the production sector in Russia. Famous not only excellent Kuznetsovsky porcelain, earthenware, opal dinner and tea ware, and terracotta figurines, vases, beautiful tiles for stoves painted in strict compliance with the style of ancient drawings ...Matthew Kuznetsov had 15 permanent trade centers in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Odessa, Kharkov, Warsaw traded on twelve Russian fairs, as well as in Persia, Turkey and the Balkans.The so-called "eastern goods" prevailed in the production of the "Society of MS Kuznetsova "- produced by former Gardner and Gzhelian plants. In the Eastern market usually sold to Russia assortment of cookware - pots, cups and decorations, modeled on the eastern ornaments and objects of Oriental origin - bowls, dishes for pilaf, hookahs and more. "Kashgar print", mastered at the "Association of MS Kuznetsova, "wiping out of Persia, Afghanistan, Mongolia and other Asian Porcelain from Germany, France and England.Among enterprises MS Kuznetsova was the largest Dulevo factory. By the early twentieth century, there were more than 2,300 people, there were eight kilns dishes, three steam engine 530 horsepower, 20 muffle furnaces. When close to the plant paved the Nizhny Novgorod railway production has even more benefits. Dulevo products was one of the best in Europe is largely due to the use of raw materials of the highest quality and the special treatment. At first glance, the secret was simple: the clay during the year cellar massozagotovochnogo shop, not using - "letovali." During this time, it becomes pliable. Was essential and use only dry, seasoned fuel: Use only peat, produced by 20 July. The rest are considered unsuitable for the production of porcelain, because there was no time to dry it to standard moisture. But, of course, the main thing that makes the product of the "Society of MS Kuznetsov "is so beautiful - was highly qualified masters of his plants - their talent and golden hands.Gzhel painters traditionally painted cobalt dishes, decorating her large Roseanne, at least - with little flowers. This style of painting took over and the master Dulevo, but "Rose" was a pink-purple. In the 40-50's at the plant had many masters involved in painting. Agafya name was most common among them; "earthenware" named and their pictures - touching, naive, but very vivid, immediately catches the eye. Later appeared in Dulevo kind of style - "inn", too bright, catchy, but more decorative, resembling a toy.Kuznetsov vigilantly next for porcelain products in the global market, seeking to introduce in its factories all the latest. In 1910, the French company "Fore" released machines for molding cups with thick walls. Kuznetsov immediately bought the car and found in Dulevo and then Gzhel. In the 80 years in Western Europe has become fashionable to decorate porcelain figures transferable way decal - multi-color printing, which imitates the hand painting. "Dekalko" successfully replaced painters. ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////In the 1900s, in Dulevo was launched production of its own conversion patterns 900 varieties, but the colors seemed bright enough, and the multi-colored decal being finalized by hand. Plots for graphics decals reminiscent of porcelain painting of the first half of the XIX century romantic landscapes, genre scenes, bouquets of flowers framed picture stamped in gold and other colors. Airbrush artists painting on tinted glaze products colored background, which is then glued with floral decals. Fashionable at that time were gentle tones: blue, pink, purple, yellow.The main customers of the Kuznetsov factories in Russia were peasants - they attracted the goods cheap and bright, and the townspeople were eagerly bought at an average price Kuznetsovskaya dishes on a list similar to the expensive "noble." Matthew Sidorovich paid great attention to the study of consumer demand. New designs have been developed for its factories with the taste of certain circles of consumers, recorded and emotional impact of color decision lists. He invited to the works of famous Russian artists. It is known that the factory Kuznetsova, though short-lived, worked, MA Wrobel, creating a sketch painting decorative dishes based on "Sadko".In 1912 - the 100th anniversary of Russia's victory in the Patriotic War of 1812 - plants of the "Society of MS Kuznetsov "released plates, dinner sets, cups, plates depicting scenes from the history of World War II, richly decorated with gold stamped ornaments, decals which were made in Germany.In 1913, the plant in Dulevo more than three thousand people, produces almost 20,000 items worth about 1.75 million rubles."Association of MS Kuznetsov "is largely due to the commercial talent Matthew Sidorovich, his entrepreneurial spirit, exceptional creativity in solving business issues flourished.///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// After participating in the Moscow Polytechnic Exhibition in 1872 and in the industrial exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod, he got the right to put their products on the national emblem. Grew and world fame. One example of this - the gold medal at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1889 and 1900, the "Grand Prix" at the exhibition in Reims in 1903 and Liege in 1905.Merit and the MS Society Kuznetsov was awarded the Order of Stanislaus and two degrees of Vladimir, St. Anne, and the Order of the Star of Bukhara, the French Cavalry Cross and the Legion of Honor. He was a member of many charitable institutions, was the vowel of the Moscow City Duma and the Moscow elective Exchange Society and, of course, as the best of the best in the industry had the title of "Supplier of the Imperial Household"."