Rare Antique Original Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem Knights Grand Cross Breast Star Badge | Equestrian Order of Saint Mary of Bethlehem Grand Cross Breast Star | The Medal is comprised primarily of Silver Gilt with brilliant cut rays, superimposed parts of silver gilt, and Embellished Blue Enamel | Size: 3.5_ | This Badge is of the original design | Fine antique Condition with Enamel Intact | Provenance: Part of a prominent Lifelong Military Medal Collection; Acquired from private Chicago, IL family of the collector About the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem: (Incomplete Translation) The order of Our Lady of Bethlehem (it. Ordine Militare e Ospedaliero di S. Maria di Betlemme) is the military order founded in the 19th January 1459 by Pope Pius II for defending of the Island of Lemnos (Bull: ÇVeram semp et solidamÈ). As Pius II alluded in a Bull from the 16th March 1464 ÇMagnae Devotionis TuaeÈ: Prince Dagobert de Amorosa, the descendent of an ancient Caesarean origin Byzantine house, became the first inherited Supreme Master of the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem. The Earl Antonio Crispo Di Sira was appointed as Chancellor of the Order. The prince Dagobert de Amorosa (engraving of XVIII century) In 1479 the Knights of the Order suffered defeat and, after the final capture of Lemnos by the Turks, had to leave the Island. The remaining Knights together with the Supreme Master moved to Naples, Italy. From this moment the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem ceased to act as a holistic military organization. Following the disposition of Pope Innocent VIII, the main part of OrderÕs property came into possession of the Order Rhodes and Malta. Prince Dagobert de Amorosa died on the 5th of October 1482 in Naples and was buried in the church of St Dominica Ð S. Domenico Maggiore di Napoli. According to the records in the PopeÕs Bull, the inherited name of Supreme Master became the possession of the Amoroso dÕ Aragona family, the direct descendent of Prince Dagobert de Amorosa by the branch of his older brother Ð the Prince Giovanni de Amorosa. On the 18th May 1484, King Ferdinando I dÕ Aragona granted to the Order the right to domicile on the territory of his kingdom. Naples became the new retreat for the Knights of the Bethlehem Order and up to the beginning of 20th century the main residence of Supreme Master. The Prince Giovanni de Amorosa is gained with the honorable predicate to the family name Ð ÒdÕ AragonaÓ. The Prince died in Naples on the 15th September 1519 and was buried in the church of San Giorgio. Since the 1730, the Prince Filippo Augusto Amoroso dÕAragona (1722 Ð 1744) resumed the chivalric investitures in the Kingdom of Naples. By decree, from the 2nd February 1860, the King of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Francis II Bourbon was confirmed as the inheriting the title of the Supreme Master of the Order, and ranked it as the second dynastic Order of Caesarean family name Amorosa dÕ Aragona, along with the Order of St. John of Acre and St. Thomas (founded by the prince Aminado de Amerusio in 1205), which was also the property of the family by inherited right. A Section from the Diploma of Francis II: ÒÉ based on the Statute of The Military and Hospitaller Order of St. John of Acre and St. Thomas, issued on the 24th June 1498 in Naples by the Prince Nicola de Amerusio dÕ Aragona, and the other Statute of the The Military and Hospitaller Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem, issued on the 25th March 1730 in Naples by the Prince Filippo Augusto Amoroso dÕAragona, both are recognized further in force. We accept with pleasure the request from applier and wish to provide him with the special certificate of Our King Favor, in respect with mention and not rebuttable Caesarean origin of his ancient family and his numerous prove of affection and faith to Our King ThroneÉÓ The sepulchre of the prince Dagobert de Amorosa The relationships with St Thomas The relationship with the Order with St Thomas often depended on the politic situations in Italy that were complex. Since the moving from the Island Lemnos, the Order didnÕt have a great deal of activity for many years. The inherited Knights didnÕt have a formal structure for more than two hundred years. The period from the 18th Century to the turn of the 20th Century saw the resurgence of the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem, the one of the most favorable and important in its history. The knight investitures restarted in 1730 in the Kingdom of Naples. In 1903 the Knights, headed by the Great Master Prince Luigi Cesario Amoroso dÕAragona (1899 Ð 1931) were given a private audience by Pope Pius X. The inscription in the document ÇBenedizione ApostolicaÈ made by the Pope himself states: ÒTo our humble son, the Prince Luigi Cesario Amoroso, the inherited Supreme Master of the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem, and to all beloved Knights of the Order, we give Our Apostolical BlessingÓ. The Order gained the auspices from the side of powerful prelate of Roman Curia, the Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani, who served as Secretary of the Holy Congregation of the special spirituals in 1928-1929, and further as deputy of Governmental Vatican Secretary. Among the Cavaliers of the Order in that period were many of the hierarchs of Catholic Church, representatives of Monarchal families and Governmental figures. The Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani In 1930 the book ÇLibro dÕoro dellÕ Imperial Casa AmorienseÈ was published, and which was republished later in 1932, 1945 and 1949. It listed the family names of noble and knight degrees granted by the princes Amoroso dÕAragona as to direct descendants and heritors of former Caesarean house ÒAmorienseÓ (found by Mihail II Travl, the Caesar of Byzantium in 820 Ð 829) and to the ranked as Supreme Master of own dynastic orders. ÒORBETÓ (OR-dine BET-lemme) In 1924 the Supreme Master Luigi Cesario Spiridone Amoroso dÕAragona (1899 Ð 1931) and following him the Prince Pietro Amoroso dÕAragona are officially announced their opposition to the dictatorial regime of Mussolini. The Knights of the Order created the center of antifascist opposition called ORBET (the abbreviation is taken from the name ÒOrdine BetlemmeÓ). The centerÕs history is full of examples of the heroic activity of its guerrilla-knights in different regions of the country. ORBET saved hundreds of Jewish families along the whole of Italy. The guerrillas defended the freedom of the country with the weapon in hands. The center was hunt down by the national socialists under the personal instructions from Giacomo Suardo, the Deputy of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs, later the President of the Senate and member of Big Fascist Council until the suspending of Mussolini in September 1943. The Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem fall into the Black Book of Vatican as the Òunrecognized orderÓ (the publications Osservatore Romano LÕOsservatore Romano from 1st June 1933, Rivista Araldica (1933 fasc. X, p. 479), LÕOsservatore Romano 25th August 1938). The members of the anti-fascist movement ORBET (Naples, 1944) In 1944 the groups ORBET took part in the Òfour Naples daysÓ (quattro giornate di Napoli) significant for the history of Italy. The story of that event is related with the heroic defend of Naples from the Nazi occupation. Naples was the first European city released by insurrectionary forces. In 1944 the residence of the Supreme Magister was moved to Rome, the building situated on the central street Via del Corso 26, near to famous Piazza del Popolo. In 1949 the same building was used for the Patronato Nazionale Assistenziale Ordine Betlemme Ð the National Helping Fond of the Order, which approve the efficiency of organization and coordination of the charity work of ORBET during the hard postwar period. In honor of these events, the special memorial medal ORBET was found, and hundreds of Italian guerrillas were awarded with it for the heroic participation in the opposition. On the front side of the medal is the half-face of the prince Pietro Amoroso dÕAragona, on the back side are the cross of the order of Our Lady of Bethlehem and following inscription: ÒFor the praise of them, who saw the light in the darkness, to show the way of freedom and fair. 7th day of October 1943Ó Delegation of Naples near to monument of the Memory of the fallen knights ORBET (our days) Pope John Paul II In the 50th years of XX century, following the act _178 from the 3rd March 1951, the St Throne announced its recognition only of the Order of Malta (SMOM) and the Order of Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, leaving without mentioning the other knightÕs institutions, equal to the ÒrecognizedÓ ones by the history and glorious past. The dynastical Orders of the house of Amoroso dÕAragona and the order of former House of Savoy, together with many others, were ignored by the St Throne. During the pontificate of Pope John Paul II, the relations with the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem are moving to the positive directions. On the 26th of July 2002, in the hall called ÒSala NerviÓ, in Vatican, the audience of the knights of the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem and Pope John Paul II took place. The event gathered 50 delegates from the different regions of Italy, who came together with children and grandchildren. During the audience, the St Pope was granted with the painting Ð the portrait of John Paul II with the symbols of the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem, pictured by the earl Antonio Crispo. The Pope passed the Apostolic blessing to the knights and all the attending. The audience was finished by ceremonial representative of the military honors by Swiss Guards of the St Throne. On the 26th of October 1980, the chevalier of the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem Bartolo Longo (10.02.1841 Ð 05.10.1926) was blessed by Catholic Church, and was also named in the encyclic of the Pope John Paul II as ÒRosarium MariaeÓ Ð Òthe Apostle of RosaryÓ. His beatification has become a sensational event in the history of the knights of the Bethlehem Order. His portrait in knightÕs of the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem full regalia was placed into the main hall of ÇPontificio Santuario di PompeiÈ (Pompey, Italy). Beatification of blessed Bartolo Longo The Order of Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem In the 80th years the cooperation with the directions of the oldest knight Order, which was found in the time of crusade and existing up to now Ð The Order of Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (Ordo Eguestris S.Sepulcri Hierosolymitani), is outlined. The Supreme Magister and the Supreme Prior of this Order, in accordance with the rule, are appointed from the high hierarchy of Catholic Church by the Pope. Within the bounds of cooperation, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem the Supreme Prior of The Order of Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem Michel Sabbah has visited the residence of the Supreme Magister of the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem in Bari (Via Vittorio Veneto 5) on the 10th of January 1988. The chevaliers of the Bethlehem Order headed by the Supreme Chancellor the marquis Paolo Cecconato (on the photo). Bartolo Longo (the picture presented in the ÇPontificio Santuario di PompeiÈ) The Order in Italian Kingdom Soon after the crash of Mussolini regime, the King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy has confirmed by Savoy edict Prot.Ug/ _ 371 _ 1/B from the 30th of October 1943 and Prot.Ug/ _ 394 from the 18th of January 1944, that the prince Pietro Amoroso dÕAragona is the direct descendant and inheritor of Amorites Ð Phrygian Cesarean dynasty with the title ÒCesarean HighnessÓ. By the same edict he recognized the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem and the Order of St. John of Acre and St. Thomas, has accepted from the prince Pietro Amoroso dÕAragona the title of Big Cross of the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem (the letter of Ministry of the Royal Household from the 18th of December 1943) and granted the prince with the title Gran Cordone of the Order of St. Maurice and Lazarus (the letter of Ministry of the Royal Household from the 4th of February 1944). The dynastic status of both Orders of Amoroso House is finally defined in Italian Kingdom, they are allowed to proceed the new investitures, the chevaliers are permitted to wear openly the OrderÕs signs. ItÕs worth to mention, that the document was issued after the infamous publications of LÕOsservatore Romano (1933, 1938). The decretal is stressing the independent from time and politics situation status of knight institution of the line of Amoroso dÕAragona. Finally, the Royal civil court held in Bari on the 20th June 1945, _ 3383 R.G Sentenza _. 786 and the court _ 4419 R. G. Sentenza _ 1006, 1945, both have confirmed the dynastic rights of Supreme Magister of the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem and the competence of official performance of the chevalierÕs titles for knights of the Order, despite the fascist period publications of Vatican (Osservatore Romano, Rivista Araldica), mentioning that these issues are containing many incorrect information about the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem. Remarkable, that at the same time the analogical tribunal from the 18th July 1945 (N¡ 475 of the Royal Civil Court of Naples) recognized the prince Antonio de Kurtis Galiardi Ð Focas (famous in 50th as popular actor of Italian cinema under the pen name ÒTotoÓ) as the direct legal descendent of Caesarian dynasty the Komnenos of Byzantium, owing all the rights and privileges of this family. In the contemporary noble catalogues he is stated as ÒHis Imperial Highness Antonio Griffo Focas Flavio Ducas Komnenos Gagliardi de Curtis of ByzantiumÓ. ÒDe Curtis Griffo FocasÓ is the second Imperial dynasty, recognized at the same period in Italy equally to the House of Amoroso dÕAragona. The Order today Already in the Republic Italy the verdict #102/1949 n. 160 R.G., from the 23rd of May 1949 issued by Tribunal of the Vico Del Gargano, has proved the legality of the Order in new Italian government and the trueness of the documents touching the recognition history of Heraldic heritage of the house Amoroso dÕAragona, including the PopeÕs Bulls, ancient sovereign diplomas and royal decreets of the House of Savoy. However, after the Law N 178 from the 1951, established the ÒOrder for the deserts in front of Italian RepublicÓ and cancelled the special perquisites of all earlier existing knight Orders in Italy (except for the Order of Malta and The Order of Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem), the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem is getting the associative status with the residence in Bari (from 1957 up to now days). According to the opinion of Italian Heraldic council, the current situation of the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem is categorized as Ònon-national OrdersÓ in Italy. Currently, the Ministry of Foreign affairs of Italy is working on the detailed list of such Ònon-national OrdersÓ, which will consist of the earlier recognized dynastic Orders in the kingdom. The council would also pay attention to the Orders recognition by tribunals between 1946 (since the Monarchy abolishment) and 1951 (the cancellation of the rights of dynastic Orders and establishment of ÒOrder for the deserts in front of Italian RepublicÓ). By the special permission of governmental authorities, the status Ònon-national OrdersÓ was granted only to a few Orders of Royal Bourbon House of the Two Sicilies. It is expected that soon the same status would get the Orders of other sovereign dynasties, including the Houses of Amoroso dÕAragona. Today the association of the knights of the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem under the guidance of the prince Angelo Maria Amoroso dÕ Aragona is defining their main mission as charitable help to ill and distressed people. The candidates to the chevaliers must be introduced by the delegates of the Order during the annual capitul in order to prove their deserts and nobility. Within a limited time, only for the 26 years, i.e. from the 1st January 1904 to 25th September 1930, the chevaliers of the Order has became as following: Ð 110 cardinals of St Rome Church Ð 223 metropolitans and popes Ð 25 princes of sovereign houses Ð 75 diplomats and the representatives of governmental departments different countries In accordance with the willing of the prince Luigi Amoroso dÕAragona (1959 Ð 1996), from the 1992, the right to be granted for the titles of both dynastic institutes of House Amoroso dÕAragona was extended to orthodox Christians and protestants, although earlier there were only the catholic knights. Currently the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem is consisting of more than 1000 members from different countries, among whom about 600 are living in Italy. In this country the Order is involving 5 provinces. The Catania region is considered as most significant according to the number of knights with established special Delegature under the patronage the Right Reverend mgr Pio Vittorio Vigo Ð incumbent Roman Catholic Bishop of Acireale (Cecilia). The Veneto province with the center in Venice is the second significant area under the guideline of mgr Rino Olivotto. On the 20th June 2009 in Munich, Bavaria, was found new province of the Order for German knights with the head of prelate Munich mgr Adalbert Merlein. The open ceremony of the province was coincided with the 550 anniversary of the Order foundation and held in Cathedral. The raising to the knighthood of the Order of the Right Reverend apostolic exarch of St Throne for the byzantine rite catholic of Germany and Scandinavia bishop Mark Crick. By tradition, the ceremony of accepting the new chevaliers is hold in Italy, in Cathedral San Sabine, Bari, and in the church San Salvador, Rimini. The chevaliers of the Order are divided into 5 classes: 1 Ð The Knight of the Big Carcanet 2 Ð The Knights of the Big Cross 3 Ð The Commendatore 4 Ð The Oficer 5 Ð The Knight In accordance with the Capitul (Cap._ IX, art. 63, 64, 74) and Decreet of the Supreme Magister from the 8th December 1994, each class has its own category: 1 Ð ÇGiustizia ereditarioÈ This category consists of the nobly born knights in minimum four generations, inherited the chevalier titles of the Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem by the direct men line. The category could only be granted to the representatives of ancient noble families with the right to descent the knight titles. 2 Ð ÇGratiaÈ The category is granted to the chevaliers born in noble, or raised to a squireship now days. 3 Ð ÇBenemeritoÈ The category is associated with the chevaliers distinguished by a special deserts, whose ascendants by women line belonged to a noble families, or without the noble origin.