Watercolor and ink on paper roll, featuring four horses, signed and attr. Xu Beihong (Chinese, 1895-1953), inscribed with 2 artist seals, with comments written by Song Jingyang and Liao Jingwen (Xu's wife). Xu Beihong was a Chinese painter best known for his traditional ink paintings of horses, birds, and landscapes. With a masterful command of his medium, the artist was able to achieve a sense of movement in just a few brushstrokes. Along with his more traditional ink washes, Xu also created large-scale oil paintings in a European academic style that depicted classic Chinese scenes and portraits. Born on July 19, 1895 in Yixing, China, Xu began to study ink painting when he was just six years old, and went on to study the ecole National Superieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris as a young man. The artist exhibited throughout Europe during his life, though he was an extreme opponent of the Modernist work he saw at the time. Today, Xu’s works are in the permanent collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and the Xu Beihong Memorial Museum was established at his house after his death on September 26, 1953 in Beijing, China. PROVENANCE: Private collection (Emmeloord, Netherlands)
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By [Artist Name] : In our opinion, the work is by the artist.
Attributed to [Artist Name] : In our opinion, the work may be ascribed to the artist on the basis of style, but there may be some question as to actual authorship.
In the manner of [Artist Name] : In our opinion, the work was executed by an unknown hand, but was designed deliberately to emulate the style of the artist.
After [Artist Name] : In our opinion, the work was executed by an unknown hand, but is a deliberate copy of a known work by the artist.
Circle of [Artist Name] : In our opinion, a work of the period of the artist showing his influence, closely associated with the artist but not necessarily his pupil.
Follower of [Artist Name]: In our opinion, a work by a pupil or a follower of the artist (not necessarily a pupil).
American, 19th century : In our opinion, this work was executed by an unknown hand, and can only be identified by origin (i.e., region, period).
Bears signature : In our opinion, the signature on the artwork may be spurious.
Apocryphal : Of doubtful authenticity.