Weakened from their West Indies service, the remains of the 77th Foot or Montgomery's Highlanders were dispatched to Pennsylvania from their quarters near Hempstead, Long Island in spring of 1763 in response to the outbreak of the so-called "Pontiac's Conspiracy". Launched by a loose confederation of elements of native American tribes, primarily from the Great Lakes region who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies. Settlers in western Pennsylvania fled to the safety of Fort Pitt and other military posts after the outbreak of the war. Nearly 550 people were crowded inside Fort Pitt, including more than 200 women and children, when it was attacked on 22 June 1763, primarily by Delaware and Shawnee warriors. Too strong to be taken by force, the fort was kept under siege throughout July. Meanwhile, war parties raided deep into Pennsylvania, taking captives and killing unknown numbers of settlers in scattered farms. Two smaller strongholds that linked Fort Pitt to the east, Fort Bedford and Fort Ligonier, were attacked at various times, but were never taken. On 1 August 1763, most of the Native Americans broke off the siege at Fort Pitt in order to intercept 500 British and Provincial troops (including HIghlanders of the 77th Foot) marching to the fort's relief under Colonel Bouquet. On August 5, these two forces met at the Battle of Bushy Run. Although his force suffered heavy casualties, Bouquet fought off the attack and relieved Fort Pitt on August 20, bringing the siege to an end. Sporadic Indian raiding continued on the frontier for the remainder of the year, during which Lieutenant Grant served as the commander of Fort Bedford.
This important subgroup of the James Grant Papers consists of 21 items relating to this conflict, perhaps the most interesting being a return of the killed and wounded at Bushy Run. The remainder consists of military correspondence by Colonel Bouquet and other officers (from Forts Pitt, Ligonier,
Cumberland and Carlisle) with Lieutenant Grant, as well as military orders, intelligence reports, and supply returns:
1) "List of the Killed & Wounded the 5th. Augt. 1763", one page, quarto, separated at the folds, and docketed on recto: "List of the Killed and wounded on the March to Fort Pitt the 5th Augt. 1763". All officers killed or wounded are listed by name and unit, while the enlisted casualties are numerically recorded by unit.
2) Colonel Henry Bouquet to Grant to Grant, autograph letter signed, dated Fort Pitt, 26 October 1763, one page, folio, with wax seal. Bouquet has ordered an "escort to bring up the Convoy lately arrived at Bedford" and Grant is ordered to "detain all the Wagons whether intended for this Post or only to Bedford, till Capt. Ourry joins you with the Escort." Very fine.
3) James Grant to Bouquet, autograph letter signed, no place, undated, but almost certainly a retained draft of the 24 October letter written from Bedford that Bouquet acknowledged receipt of in his letter above, 1 1/2 pages, folio. Grant encloses Captain "Callender's letter to me, by which youl See the distress that I must be in, on the arrival of the Waggons at this Post, as I have not one Man for an Escort them...I send this Express, hopeing youl send me your orders...as I am sensible of the want of Salt at Fort Pit, and the difficulty that woud attend." Some separating at the folds.
4) Captain Lewis Ourry, 60th Foot, to Grant, autograph letter signed, dated Fort Pitt, 26 OCT 1763, one page, quarto, informing him that he "shall set out tomorrow for Bedford in Order to take off your shoulder the Weight of the Waggons you are threatened with" and advising him to have them "drawn up under Cover of the Fort...against the Kings Garden, between Fraser's Fence & the Fort..."
5) Captain James Robertson of the 77th Foot to Grant, autograph letter signed, dated Fort Ligonier, 27 October 1763, one page, quarto, noting the arrival of an express from Fort Pitt with news that the escort till arrive at Ligonier in three or four days. Light toning in folds.
6) "Return of the Number of Persons that receives provisions in Fort Bedford Garrison", docketed 23 OCT 1763 on recto, one page, octavo. Lists men, women and servants with the 42nd, 60th and 60th Foot detachments at the fort, to a total of 49.
7) "A Roll of Capt. Linn's Company that have engag'd to do duty in the Fort, October 22d. 1763", two pages, quarto, 30 men listed by name, broken into three guard shifts. Very fine, with folds.
8-10), James Livingston, as Fort Major of Fort Cumberland, three (3) autograph letters signed, dated 16 October, 10 and 14 November 1763, each one page (folio, quarto, and folio respectively). On October 16th, Livingston is "glad to hear that Maj[o]r Fields [of the Virginia Rangers] was come in before the Messengers came away, I hope he will overtake the Escort by the Foot of the Mountain, the bearer hereof...has undergone a great many Hardships since this Indian War broke out, you will be surprized at my wonderful Escape and Adventures, a Relation of which I refer you to him...." On November 10th, he "has nothing new ...but the Goose I promised, which Mr. Clark will deliver to you" and requests "an old Tent...of Service at this Place" and wishes him to "tell Sandy Menzie to make haste to Virginia, for they will certainly raise men this Fall agad if he goes on instead of breaking he will be made, if he gets Twelve Months Pay Advance." November 14th Livingstons informs him that 31 troops arrived from Fort Pitt via "Braddock's Road & never Seen the least Sign nor track of an Indian which gives me a great deal of Satisfaction, as all my Malitia is now gone"and requests a "half a Dozen of my Country men, as I am quite Destitute." Separations at the folds of the last letter.
11-12) Robert Callender, an Indian trader to Grant, two (2) autograph letters signed, (no place, but probably Carlisle), dated 22 and 24 October 1763 respectively, each one page, folio. Callender discusses enclosed bills of lading and discusses wagon convoys being dispatched to Forts Bedford and Pitt, containing clothing, salt, hospital stores, flour and pork.
13) Grant's "Orders to the Garrison of Bedford the 15th October 1763", manuscript document, one page, folio. He orders "that the Sentinels or Soldiers...dont go without the Garrison after Sun set...the
Sentinels on their Posts are not to allow any Person to approach near the Stockade or Walls of the Fort After its dark....[and] are to call out all is well every Quarter of an Hour in the Night..."
14) Unsigned manuscript letter to unknown addressee, dated Bedford, 20 October 1763, one page, folio. The writer advises that "three men riding toward Fort Cumberland espied Ten or Eleven Indians Marching toward this Garrison and as the safety of the Salt and Pork Under Your Care will be of the Utmost Consequence you will be on your Guard to prevent any Danger that may Occur....as the Men who saw those Indians were obliged to Flie, we are Uncertain both as to the Number and design they may have."
15) James Grant's "J[o]urn[a]l Commenceing the 12th October 1763", autograph document, five pages, biflolium , in six leaves. Four pages contain an account of activities at Fort Bedford, abruptly ending at with the beginning of an entry for October 25th. The back cover of the journal is an inventory of flour stores received and delivered between 14-19 October, ending October 25th. Grant described coming and goings of convoys and expresses, then notes that on the 20th, "two Men going from this to Cumberland were drove back by twelve Indians, much about the same time several of the Inhabitants were likewise drove in and the Indians about dusk were seen ...in the town." The following day, he describes two expresses to Cumberland saw an Indian " three miles of this" who when he got neare them Cock'd his piece, and brought the Gun to a Present, at which time the Expresses...returned....A short time afterwards, Mrs. Innes from Cumberland cam[e] in who was taken by the Expresses for the Indian, Mrs. Innes says that she knew the Expresses to be white men saw they were so much Affraid as not to wait that she might let them to know She was no Indian." On October 22nd, Grant further mentions that "Major Fields Express who gave his Dispatches to Innes got into Cumberland but in the retreate from the Turkies taken by them for Indians Innes lost the Dispatches."
16-19) Various military and supply accounts from Fort Bedford, November 1763 (four)
20) Captain Alexander MacDonald to Grant, autograph letter signed, 23 October 1763, one page, folio. He lets his friend James know that Captain Grant will provide him with particulars, but notes that "I am order'd to Place here with the rest of the officers the Serjts. and the Corp[ora]ls God knows how long all of you on the Communication remains where you are till further orders from Genl. Amherst for my own part I never was worse situated I have niether [sic] meat, Drink, Cloaths, or money in this place...."
21) Captain Alexander Campbell to Grant, autograph letter signed, dated Fort Pitt, 29 October 1763, one page, folio. Campbell notes that "When I was a Ligonier James Campbell gave me a list of mens names who owed you Money, it was written with a pencil on a Card, and by tumbling about in my pocket was so effaced that it could not be read....What a hardship it is, Conny, to be detained in this Rascally place. You are happy and you will be able to amuse us with your Adventures of Gallantry, in which you are very Sly."Condition:Dimensions:17 - 1/4" x 14 - 1/4".