All lots that do not carry established documented provenance nor any past record of auction history record are described in the catalog as attributed .
All authorship of items in this catalog are described according to the following terms:
Signed [Artist Name] : In cases in which the signature is legible in the lot, this work is described as-is with no attributions given.
By [Artist Name] : The work is by the artist.
Attributed to [Artist Name] : The work may be ascribed to the artist on the basis of style, but there may be some question as to actual authorship.
In the manner of [Artist Name] : The work was executed by an unknown hand, but was designed deliberately to emulate the style of the artist.
After [Artist Name] : The work was executed by an unknown hand, but is a deliberate copy of a known work by the artist.
Circle of [Artist Name] : A work of the period of the artist showing his influence, closely associated with the artist but not necessarily his pupil.
Follower of [Artist Name]: A work by a pupil or a follower of the artist (not necessarily a pupil).
American, 19th century : This work was executed by an unknown hand, and can only be identified by origin (i.e., region, period).